• TOPIC – I THE DELHI SULTANATE

    QUTUBUDDIN AIBEK (1206 AD – 1210 AD)
    • Was a Turk of Aibak tribe which in Turkish language means “Lord of the Moon”.
    • In his early life he was taken prisoner and sold as slave to a kind – hearted qazi of Nishapur (Persia).
    • His master provided him education in Islamic theology and arts of warfare along with his sons.
    • After the death of the qazi, his sons sold him off to Muhammad Ghori.
    • He was one of the trusted slave officers of Muhammad Ghauri.
    • He was appointed the in charge of Indian possessions by Muhammad Ghauri after victory in second battle of Tarain in 1192 AD.
    • After the death of Muhammad Ghauri his empire was divided into two parts i.e. Ghazni and empire of India.
    • Ghazni was captured by Tajuddin Yaldoj and Aibek established his independent state in India.
    • He was the founder of Slave dynasty. This dynasty was also known as Mamluk dynasty. Mamluk was Quaranic term for slave.
    • Qutubuddin assumed reigns of government as independent ruler at Lahore on June 24, 1206.
    • Defeated Yaldoz and occupied Ghazni for a brief period in 1208.
    • Started his reign with the modest title of ‘Malik’ and ‘Sipahasalar.
    • He did not strike coins nor got the Khutba read in his name.
    • He did not assume the title of sultan.
    • In 1208 – 09 Ghiasuddin Mahmud, the nephew and legal successor of Muhammad Ghori, who was content with his rule over the ancestral principality of Ghori; sent deeds of manumission and investiture to Qutubuddin and conferred upon him the title of sultan.
    • Aibek as a ruler granted partial civil liberties to the Hindus in return for the payment of Jaziya and was known as the just monarch among his coreligionists.
    • He extended patronage to the learned and scholars. Hassan Nizami and Fakhre Mudir dedicated their books to him.
    • He founded Delhi Sultanate and became the first independent Muslim ruler of India.
    • Known as Lakh-Bakhsh (giver of lakhs) because of his generosity.
    • Qutubuddin made Lahore his capital. Indraprastha was his main military centre.
    • He took recourse to matrimonial alliances to strengthen his position. Qutubuddin married himself with the daughter of Tajuddin Yaldoj, married his sister with Nasiruddin Kubacha and married his daughter with Iltutmish.
    • He laid the foundation of the first of the so – called seven cities of medieval Delhi by constructing buildings in the vicinity of the old Rajput fort called Qila i Rai Pithaura.
    • He started the construction of the Qutub Minar, the tallest stone tower in India (238 feet in height), in 1199 A.D. after the name of Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, a famous Sufi saint of his times.
    • Qutub Minar was completed by Iltutmish.
    • Laid the foundation of the first of the so called ‘seven cities’ of Medieval Delhi by constructing buildings in the vicinity of the old Rajput fort called Qila-I-Rai Pithora.
    • Died while playing Chaugan (Polo) from a fall from horse at Lahore.
    • Buried at Lahore.
    • Qutubuddin Aibek was succeeded by his inexperienced and incapable son Aram Shah who ruled at Lahore for about eight months before being defeated and deposed by Iltutmish.
  • TOPIC – II SHAMSUDDIN ILTUTMISH (1211 AD – 1236 AD)

    EARLY LIFE
    • His father was an influential noble of the Ilbari tribe of the Turks.
    • He was handsome and intelligent. Iltutmish excited the jealousy of his half –brothers who deceitfully handed him over to a slave – trader.
    • After passing through many hands, he was, ultimately, purchased by Qutubuddin Aibek in Delhi at an exorbitant price of one lakh jitals.
    • Iltutmish was manumitted by Aibek at the instance of Muhammad Ghori for the performance of Iltutmish in the campaign against the Khokhars in 1205 – 06.
    • He was governor of the Iqtas of Gwalior and Baran (Buland Shahr) in succession before becoming Sultan .
    • Iltutmish fought battle with the Aram Shah for the thrown of Indian empire and captured the thrown after defeating Aram Shah.
    • Iltutmish made Delhi his seat of governance in preference to Lahore.
    • The seat of governance of the sultans was called Dar – ul- Khalifa, which literally means house of the Khalifa.
    • The disaffected and insubordinate Ghurid (Muizzi) officers were gradually downgraded or eliminated by Iltutmish.
    • Iltutmish created an entirely new class of the ruling elite which comprised his own Turkish slave officers, headed by their forty powerful military leaders – nicknamed the Chalisa (Chihalgani or Chehalgan), the Forty. They held charge of the iqtas or regions into which the kingdom was divided, and wielded great influence at the court.
    • Iltutmish secured a letter of investiture from the Abbasid Caliph Al – Mustansir Billah of Baghdad in February 1229.
    • Iltutmish was bestowed the titles of the Sultan of Hindustan and the deputy of the leader of the faithful (Nasir Amir ul Momin).
    • He introduced a purely Arabic currency of gold and silver. His standard silver tanka weighed 175 grains.
    • He persecuted the Ismaili Shias of Delhi and his treatment towards the Hindus was harsh but not cruel. He had desecrated the magnificent Hindu temples at Bhilsa and Ujjain but he did not resort to idol – breaking just to satisfy the whims of his fanatic co – religionists.
    • He encouraged the Muslims to make settlements in the Hindu habitats, particularly, in the mountainous and forest regions so as to exert pressure over the Hindus and discourage them from harbourring rebellious feelings towards the sultanate.
    • Started the system of division of empire into ‘iqta’, an assignment of land in lieu of salary and distributed them among the Turkish officers.
    • Coming of Mongols under the leadership of Chengez Khan to the frontiers of India (1220 AD).
    • Invaded Ujjain and destroyed the temple of ‘Mahakal’
    • Founded Nasiriya College of Delhi in the memory of his son Nasiruddin Mahmud. Qazi Minhaz ud Din Siraj was appointed its principal later by Razia Sultan.
    ILTUTMISH AND THE MONGOLS
    • The Mongols were original inhabitant of Mongolia. They had not yet entered the fold of Islam. They were shamanists by faith, which was a varied form of Buddhism.
    • The Mongols also threatened India during his rule. Iltutmish saved India from Mongol devastation through diplomacy.
    • Alauddin Muhammad, the Khwarizm shah, one of the greatest Muslim monarchs of his age, had to eat a humble pie at their hands. he fled towards the Caspian while his eldest son, Jalauddin Mankbarni escaped towards Afghanistan. Jalauddin Mankbarni was followed close upon his heels by Chengez Khan. Mankbarni entered the Indus valley and demanded help from Iltutmish against the Mongols.
    • Iltutmish put the envoy of Mankbarni to death and refused to oblige the Khwarizm prince by sending a diplomatic reply that the climate o India would not suit him. Thus through a diplomatic stroke, he saved himself from the wrath of Chengez Khan.
    RIVALS OF ILTUTMISH
    • The accession of Iltutmish was challenged by other rival contenders to thrown.
    • Tajuddin Yaldoj, the Sultan of Ghazni tried to assert his dominance over Iltutmish. Tajuddin Yaldoj was defeated by Alauddin Muhammad, the Khwarizm shah. Yaldoj escaped towards Punjab and Iltutmish gave a crushing defeat to Yaldoz at Tarain. Yaldoz was taken prisoner and put to death after a brief confinement at Badaun. This battle is known as 3rd battle of Tarain.
    • Nasiruddin Qubacha, the governor of Uchh (Sind) and Multan occupied Lahore and declared his independence. After the death of Chengez khan in 1227 Iltutmish launched an offensive against Nasiruddin Qubacha from two sides i.e. Lahore and Delhi. Multan and Uchh were captured and Qubacha was besieged in the fort of Bhakkar on the band of the Indus. Surrounded from all sides by the enemy and totally exhausted, Qubacha made his last bid to escape by plunging into the river, and was drowned.
    • At the time of Iltutmish’s succession to the throne, Ali Mardan had set up an independent state of Bengal with his capital at Lakhnauti. Rebels were crushed and. the province of Bengal and Bihar was divided into two parts. Iltutmish appointed two separate governors, one for Bengal and other for Bihar.
    WARS OF ILTUTMISH
    • He launched a full – fledged campaign against the Rajputs in 1226.
    • Ranthambhor was recovered from the Chauhans first; mandsor, the head – quarters of the Parmars, was acquired next. The Chauhan ruler of Jalor was compelled to acknowledge Turkish suzerainty. There after, the territories of Bayana, Ajmer and Sambhar were reconquered after many a bloody engagement with the Rajputs.
    • A big slice of Jodhpur state, including the town of Nagaur, was annexed by 1230.
    • The Pratihar ruler of Gwalior was subjugated in 1230 – 31 after a year – long siege of the fort.
    • Iltutmish led an attack on Nagada, the capital of Guhilots but suffered a defeat at the hands of Rana Kshetra Singh.
    • Iltutmish’s army was also repulsed with heavy losses by the Chalukyas of Gujarat.
    • He carried out an expedition into Malwa in 1234 -35 and plundered the towns of Bhilsa and Ujjain.
    • The campaign in the Gangetic valley was launched under the charge of Nasiruddin Mahmud, the eldest son of Iltutmish. The territories of Badaun, Kanauj and Benaras were conquered from the Hindu chieftains.
    • Katehar (Rohilkhand), with its capital Ahichhatra, was also conquered after a long struggle; more than a lakh of the Turkish soldiers are said to have lost their lives in this campaign.
    • In 1235, Iltutmish made an attempt to bring the Khokhars under his subjugation.
    • Iltutmish fell sick, returned to Delhi and breathed his last in April 1236.
    • He was buried in the magnificent tomb which he had got constructed for himself in Delhi.
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